1st Edition

Germfree and Gnotobiotic Animal Models
Background and Applications




ISBN 9780849340086
Published June 19, 1996 by CRC Press
208 Pages

USD $480.00

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Book Description

The germfree animal is reared in the laboratory to be bacteria free; its counterpart, the gnotobiotic animal, is exposed to select microorganisms. The need for such an animal model for use in biomedical studies was first expressed by Pasteur in the late 1800s. Subsequent development of germfree and gnotobiotic animals led to an explosion of studies on the effects of microflora and its components on the physiology and metabolism of the host. Germfree and Gnotobiotic Animal Models brings together the most notable points of early and recent studies and gives reference to the most pertinent literature.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Early Growth, Body Weight, Reproduction, and Life Span
General Aspects
Growth
Body Weight of the Mature Animal
Reproduction
Life Span
Conclusions
Anatomy, Morphology, and Function of the Gastrointestinal System
General Aspects
Stomach
Small Intestine
Cecum
Large Intestine
Conclusions
Morphology and Physiology, Endocrinology and Biochemistry
General Aspects
Energy Metabolism
Liver Function
Cholesterol and Bile Acid Metabolism
Rats and Mice
Gerbils
Dogs and Pigs
Other Indicators of Function
Water Balance and Kidney Function
Mineral Metabolism
Endocrine System
Conclusions
Nutrition
General Aspects
Early Rat and Mouse Diets
Hand-Feeding of the Cesarean-Derived Newborn
Solid Diets
Further Development of Rat and Mouse Diets
Sterilization of Solid Diets
Metabolic Requirements of Germfree Rats and Germfree Mice-Contributions of the Microflora
Dietary Energy Requirements
Proteins and Amino Acids
Vitamin B Complex-Microflora Production
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Minerals
Inositol, Ubiquinone, and Queuine
The Chemically Defined Diet
General Aspects
Development of the Chemically Defined Diet
Procedures
Present Status
Dietary Antigenicity and Immune Potential
Immunology, Including Radiobiology and Transplantation
General Aspects
Early Studies: Immune Potential of Germfree Rats and Mice Maintained on Solid Diets
Antibody-Forming Potential
Phagocytosis
B Cells, T Cells, and NK Cells
Immune Globulins
Natural Antibody
Cytokinins
Radiation Biology and Bone Marrow Transplantation
Immunological Evaluation of GF Mice Maintained on a Chemically Defined, Low Molecular Weight Antigen-Free Diet
Conclusions
Parasitology
General Aspects
Effects of the Microflora Via Nutrient Availability and the Immune System
Protozoa
Nematodes
Helminths
Schistosomiasis and Chagas' Disease
Cestodes
Pathology Over the Life Span of the Germfree Rat and the Germfree Mouse
General Aspects
Tumors and Tumor-Related Viruses
Conclusions
Applications: Past, Present, and Future. Part I
Introduction
Microbial Action and Interaction in Gnotobiotic Systems: Colonization Resistance and Translocation Studies
Controlled Microbial Association
Colonization Resistance
Materials with Antimicrobial Action
Translocation Studies
Applications: Past, Present, and Future. Part II.
Use of the Gnotobiote in the Study of Disease
The Aging Syndrome
"Endpoint Studies"
Lobund Aging Study
Cancer Research
Role of the Microflora in Steroid Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease
Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease Studies
Dental Caries
Periodontal Disease
Radiation Biology: Role of the Microflora and Effect of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
The Shock Syndrome: Potential Influence of LPS
Hemorrhagic Shock
Thermal Shock
Intestinal Strangulation
Tourniquet Shock
Ulcerative Colitis
Studies of Swine Disease
Applications: Past, Present, and Future. Part III. The Production of Monoclonal Antibodies and Conclusions
Monoclonal Antibodies
Conclusions and Future Considerations
Index

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