1st Edition

Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology




ISBN 9781566702492
Published July 23, 1997 by CRC Press
342 Pages

USD $195.00

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Book Description

Groundwater is an increasingly important resource to human populations around the world, and the study and protection of groundwater is an essential part of hydrogeology - the subset of hydrology that concentrates on the subsurface. Environmental isotopes, naturally occurring nuclides in water and solutes, have become fundamental tools for tracing the recharge, history, and contamination of groundwater.

Table of Contents

The Environmental Isotopes
Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology
Stable Isotopes: Standards and Measurement
Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
Radioisotopes
Isotope Fractionation
Isotope Fractionation (a), Enrichment (e), and Separation (D)
Tracing the Hydrological Cycle
Craig's Meteoric Relationship in Global Fresh Waters
Partitioning of Isotopes Through the Hydrological Cycle
Condensation, Precipitation, and the Meteoric Water Line
A Closer Look at Rayleigh Distillation
Effects of Extreme Evaporation
Precipitation
The T - d18O Correlation in Precipitation
Local Effects on T - d18O
Ice Cores and Paleotemperature
Groundwater
Recharge in Temperate Climates
Recharge in Arid Regions
Recharge from River-Connected Aquifers
Hydrograph Separation in Catchment Studies
Groundwater Mixing
Tracing the Carbon Cycle
Evolution of Carbon in Groundwaters
Carbonate Geochemistry
Carbon-13 in the Carbonate System
Dissolved Organic Carbon
Methane in Groundwaters
Isotopic Composition of Carbonates
Chapter 6. Groundwater Quality
Sulphate, Sulphide and the Sulphur Cycle
Nitrogen Cycles in Rural Watersheds
The "Fuhrberger Feld" Study
Source of Chloride Salinity
Landfill Leachates
Degredation of Chloro-organics and Hydrocarbon
Sensitivity of Groundwater to Contamination
Summary of Isotopes in Contaminant Hydrology
Identifying and Dating Modern Groundwaters
The "Age" of Groundwater
Stable Isotopes
Tritium in Precipitation
Dating Groundwaters with Tritium
Groundwater Dating with 3H -3He
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Thermonuclear 36Cl
Detecting Modern Groundwaters with 85Kr
Submodern Groundwater
Age Dating Old Groundwaters
Stable Isotopes and Paleogroundwaters
Groundwater Dating with Radiocarbon
Correction for Carbonate Dissolution
Some Additional Complications to 14C Dating
14C Dating with Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC)
Case Studies for 14C dating with DOC and DIC
Chlorine-36 and Very Old Groundwater
The Uranium Decay Series
Water-Rock Interaction
Mechanisms of Isotope Exchange
High Temperature Systems
Low Temperature Water-Rock Interaction
Strontium Isotopes in Water and Rock
Isotope Exchange in Gas-Water Reactions
High pH Groundwaters-The Effect of Cement Reactions
Field Methods for Sampling
Groundwater
Water in the Unsaturated Zone
Precipitation
Gases
Geochemistry
References
Index

Each chapter has Problems sections.

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Reviews

"...easily the best and most up-to-date book this reviewer has read on the subject... The first chapter provides an excellent introduction, while the final chapter offers a good practical discussion often missing in other books of a similar nature... Given the reasonable price for this book, the quality and quantity of information contained, and its timeliness, it is highly recommended."
-Choice