1st Edition

A Law Enforcement Sourcebook of Asian Crime and CulturesTactics and Mindsets




ISBN 9780849381164
Published November 13, 1996 by Routledge
464 Pages

USD $195.00

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Book Description

Even in multicultural North America, few whites, blacks, or Hispanics have extensive experience or understanding of Asian culture. For experienced police officers, intelligence analysts, correctional officers, and prosecutors, the problems of cultural differences in behavior remain complex and problematic. This book addresses these specific law enforcement problems, and supplies law enforcement professionals with information and strategies for easier arrests, more accurate intelligence, more successful prosecutions, and fewer problems during incarceration.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION
"If You Don't Have Much Time"
Things to Keep in Mind
Some Reasons to be Cautious
To Others, We Have a Peculiar Culture, Too!
How Much Cross-Cultural Understanding Is Enough?
A Checklist of Our Own Tolerances for Differences
Be Skeptical!
Basics - What? Why? How? - Benefits, and Sources
Seven Basic Questions
What are Some of the Benefits for Police?
What Cross-Cultural Data Cannot Do: Guidelines, Limitations, and Packaging
Sources, Methods, Applications: Academic and Law Enforcement
Why Some Asians and Asian-Americans may not Like this Book
Culture, Police, and Asian Crime
The Cross-Cultural Context of Asian Crime in America
What Is Culture?
How Are Cultural Traits Conceived and Used?
Cross-Cultural Competency Is Not Just Language Competency
Police as Cross-Cultural Learners
Police as Potential Cross-Cultural Specialists
CULTURAL "DO'S AND DON'TS"
Public Relationships
Asian Images of Police
To Help Asians Get a Better Image of Cops
Asian Families Come First
Check with the Amah
Know and Be Known
Funerals and Weddings
Uniform vs. Plainclothes
Respect and Social Levels
Role Playing
Body Language
How Not To Sit
Yakuza Body Language
Humility
Privacy
Avoidance of Public Confrontation
Honor the Elderly
Indirectness
"Face"
Provocation and "Face"
Guanxi
Street Cops and Guanxi
Gossip is Good
Beeper/Pager Numbers
Street Negotiations
Shake Hands Only with Older Recognized Gang Leaders, not with Younger Gang Members
Intimidate Gang Suspects by Sitting Next to Them
Foreign Courtesy Terms
Don't Use Slang, Parables, or 'Pop' References
Observe and Balance Paybacks
Avoid Co-Option
Holidays, Grand Openings, and Surveillance
Questionable Community Translators
Check Whether the Bunsen Burners are on in the Jewelry Store
Asian Newspapers
Asian Public Apologies
Folk Medicine and Alleged Child Abuse
Passport Profiles
Forged U.S. Visas and Altered Passports
Passports, Visas, and Claims of Diplomatic Immunity
Diplomatic Auto License Plates
Person-to-Person Relationships
Attitudes and Applications
Speak Quietly
Personal Space
Don't Touch
Spend Time in the Streets
Visit the Temples
Identifying Ethnic Groups
Gestures
Other Physical "Don'ts"
Business Cards
Applause
Spitting
Greetings
Polite Topics of Conversation
Silence
Privacy
Saying "No"
Watch Out for the "Yes" Answers
Get Search Warrants, Not Consent To Search
Do Beat Around the Bush
Removing Shoes
Don't Push Things Around with Your Feet
Interviewing Witnesses, Victims, and Monks
Address Elders First
Masks and Fingerprint Identification
Names and Dialect Identification
Ask Direct and Specific Questions: Information will not be Volunteered
Interviews with Police Are "Doing Business"
Get the Specific and Cultural History of the Suspect's Extended Family
Special Family Names
Check Beauty Salon Connections
Quietly Check with Dads for Any "Extracurricular Activities"
Travel Agents
Marian Days
Wives, Concubines, and Mistresses
Threats of Family Gravesite Desecration in Asia
Do the Victims Understand the Bail System?
Hoarding Cash at Home
Greeting Monks, Religious Leaders, and Family Elders
Use Quiet Manners with Unfamiliar Religious Objects
Use an Interpreter with a Monk or Religious Leader
Witnesses and Some Cross-Cultural Aspects of Trials
"But Asians Won't Testify"
Be a Long-Term Friend
Asian Friendship
Home Protection Before Trial
Do Not Make Witnesses Lose "Face"
Protect Witnesses from Gangs
Subpoena Blanks
Avoid Loudmouthed Clerks or Reporters
Use the District Attorney's Explanatory Time for Relevant Cross-Cultural Topics
Educate the Jury About Asian Names
Use Posterboards
Suspect's Appearances
Photograph their Ears
Explain the Uses of Standard Telegraphic Code for Chinese Names
Home Protection After the Trial
Suspect's Records and Affiliations
Know the Suspect's Ethnic Background
Records and Standard Telegraphic Code
Get Three Handwriting Samples of the Suspect's Name in Chinese, Japanese, or Korean Characters
Photo Books
Check Local Hair Salons for Photographs
Gang Mobility
Vietnamese Community "Safe Houses"
Telephone Record Links
Check Motel Phone Books
Check Home Country and Regional Connections
Check Refugee and/or Dialect Connections
Women's Married Names
Aliases may be Legitimate
"INS" Names
Check School and Refugee Organization Connections
Legal Ages
Use INS Agents
Victims Profiles
Interrogating Suspects and Recruiting Informants
Are There Any Significant Differences?
Suggested "Do's and Don'ts"
Assumptions of Reid Interrogation Across Cultures
Interrelations and the Need for Cultural Knowledge
Interrogating Home-Invasion Robbery Suspects
Recruiting Informants
Interrogation and McCarthy's "Gang Crime Magic"
Asian Youth Gangs
What is a Gang and Who are Its Members?
Why Do Some Youths Become Gang Members?
Are Gangs Largely of a Single Ethnic Type?
Levels of Adherence to a Gang
Documentation for Identifying Gang Membership
Gangs as Surrogate "Families"
Home-Invasion Robbery Victim's Profile
Organizational Models and "Pickup" Gangs
Caucasian "Throw-Away" Gang Members
On the "Toughness" of Asian Gang Members
Numbers, Gambling, Tattoos, Food,
and Regionalism
Some Cross-Cultural Crime-Related Aspects of Numbers Gambling
Tattoos and Slang
Food and Eating
Regionalism, Anti-Stereotypes, and Role-Playing
ETHNIC MINDSETS, PROFILES, AND RELIGIONS
Contrasting Chinese and American Mindsets
An Introduction to Mindsets
The Importance and Limitations of Cultural Generalities
Comparative Mindsets: Society, Self, Values, Epistemic Models, Religion, and World Views
Major Components of Chinese Mindsets
Attitudes About Police Authority vs. the Community
Chinese Shame Culture vs. American Guilt Culture
Pragmatic Contextualism
Face
Guanxi
High-Context Asian Cultures vs. Police Low-Context Culture
Formal Manners and "Paybacks" are Important
Business Contracts, Time, and Negotiations
Suggested Readings: Asian Crime and Cross-Cultural Studies
Ethnic Profile: The Chinese
Introduction to the Scope of Chinese Crime
On Introducing and Summarizing Chinese Cultures
Potential Chinese Global Economic Power
A Geographical Sketch of China
Cultural Sketches
Five Deep Cultural Mindsets
"Face" (Mian Zi) and Losing "Face" (Diu Lian)
Self and Its Status
Collectivism vs. Individualism vs. Chinese Group Orientation
Guanxi (Networking): A Key to Chinese Society
Pride in the Ultimate Superiority of Being Chinese
Is Reading Chinese Ethnic Strategists Relevant for Police?
Chinese Language, Names, and Holidays
The Chinese Language
Chinese Names
Chinese Holidays and Festivals
Suggested Readings
Ethnic Profile: The Vietnamese
An Introduction to the Scope of Vietnamese Crime
A Geographical and Historical Sketch
Cultural Sketches
Two Deeper Cultural Mindsets: Village Mentality and Time
Names, Language, and Scripts
Holidays and Calendars
Marian Days: Carthage, Missouri
Suggested Readings
Asian Buddhism and Chinese Confucianism
A Brief Comparative Introduction
Chinese Confucianism
Taoism (Daoism): The Internal Chinese Counterbalance
Buddhism
Buddhist Contextual Pragmatism and Truth
RECORDING, PRESERVING, TRAINING, AND PLANNING
Standard Telegraphic Code (STC)
What is STC?
Why Should STC Be Used? A Hong Kong Example
Translation vs. Transliteration
The Importance of the World Order of Chinese Names
Common Surnames, Personal Names, and Brother Names
An Example from the STC Code Book
The Problem of Nicknames and Suffixes
Asian Police Transliterations/Romanizations
The Absence of Materials and Training Sources
Reference Materials
Preserving the Cross-Cultural Skills Police Already Possess
The Unnoticed Pressures on Asian-American Officers
Supplementing the Planning of Criminal Justice and In-Service Training Programs
A Criminal Justice Prejudice? Cross-Cultural Studies Belong to Social Science
Community Policing and Cross-Cultural Training Programs
Afterword
Appendix A: Chinese Triads, Triad Organizations, and Triad Relationships, Prepared by George F. Harkin, Senior Federal Intelligence Analyst
Appendix B: Common Chinese Surnames and Notes on Chinese Language and Dialects, Prepared by Robert M. Hearn, Senior Federal Intelligence Analyst
Appendix C: Guanxi: An Important Concept for the Law Enforcement Office, Prepared by M. Cordell Hart, Senior Intelligence Analyst, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Department of Treasury
Appendix D: Overcoming Language and Cultural Barriers in Dealing with Asian Organized Crime, Prepared by M. Cordell Hart, Senior Intelligence Analyst, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Department of Treasury
Appendix E: Chinese Culture and the Practice of Actuarial Intelligence, Prepared by Paul Moore, Senior Intelligence Analyst, Federal Bureau of Investigation
Glossary
Endnotes
Index

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Reviews

"Douglas Daye provides an excellent "how to" source book for acquiring and applying cross-cultural skills within the realm of protecting Asian-American communities and fighting Asian organized crime. Anyone serious about working in the field of Asian investigations should add this resource to the library."
-Crime & Justice International
"Chock full of pithy and practical ideas, including checklists and 'Do's and Don'ts,' it is exactly what every police department dealing with Asian crime will want to have in its squad room."
- M. Cordell Hart, Senior Intelligence Analyst, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Department of Treasury
"Cops who have been working in the field of Asian investigations for years will learn something from this book. Police officers who have never worked such cases will stand a better chance of success if they have it in their library. It is the kind of book that one will refer to again and again over the years. It is inevitable that this book will be used as the basis for testimony in criminal courts across America in coming years."
- Lt. Jack Willoughby, New Orleans Police Department
"This book is a 'must have' for any police intelligence operation as well as for any police academy staff that might even think of teaching their officers something about Asian crime and criminals."
- Lt. Jack Willoughby, New Orleans Police Department
"Cops who have been working in the field of Asian investigations for years will learn something from this book. Police officers who have never worked such cases will stand a better chance of success if they have it in their library. It is the kind of book that one will refer to again and again over the years. It is inevitable that this book will be used as the basis for testimony in criminal courts across America in coming years."
- Lt. Jack Willoughby, New Orleans Police Department